Introduction to Advanced technology and Materials (Composite) Section


- Introduction

- Composite Industry’s Definitions

- Composites Manufacturing Methods

- Fiberglass

- Application of Composites and Advanced Materials




After years of attempts which had been accomplished in the field of irrigation and water resources projects in design, construction and new technologies import,  a three year opportunity came along for the experts of this company in order to focus on the aspect of advanced technology and materials.

 In this respect in addition to the case studies and researches which have been conducted in IRAN as well as international market suppliers, several opportunities have come along for studying the issue of composite. In order to achieve this purpose, advanced technology and material section was formed and fully equipped with software possibilities and professional and sophisticated experts in this field.

According to the precious experience which had been gained by the experts of this company, the following projects were fulfilled by CHEGAL AB Engineering Company:

1- Studying and offering consulting and business services in order to create and construct the 

     infrastructures of the related industries.

2- International technical and commercial negotiations with technology’s owner throughout            the world.

3- International technical and business negotiation with the advanced raw materials suppliers.

4- Transferring the technological knowledge to some of the clients.

5- Visiting the latest developments in advanced technology and materials in well-known                  international exhibitions. 

6- Transferring technical knowledge and advanced materials to the country.

7- Fulfilling EPC projects with local and international joint venture partner.

Therefore, the advanced technology and material section has begun it’s work in tandem with other sections of this company in order to transfer advanced technology and materials.

The mission of this section is to offer more services to people and it’s vision is meeting costumer’s needs. Moreover it’s values are innovation and integrity in services and it’s principles are consumer driven, teamwork and to be professional.


Composite Industry’s Definitions

As a matter of fact composite materials are some complex materials which consist of two or more components. It’s worth mentioning that these materials are separated and they can be indentified in macro scale.

Composite materials consist of two main parts, matrix and reinforcement. Through surrounding The reinforcement, matrix holds it in the right and suitable place and this improves the mechanical properties of the composite. Reinforcement are often of staple and filament shape.

Common matrixes in composite industries are basically polymer matrix such as thermosets like polyester, vinyl ester and epoxy.

The most significant types of fibers which are used in composite industry are fiberglass, carbon fiber, basalt fiber and aramid fiber.

The most important feature and specification of composite materials is the fact that it has some ideal properties in comparison to the each of its components. The above mentioned properties are as following:

- High mechanical strength comparing to its low weight 

- High strength against corrosion

- High fatigue features against metals

- Good thermal and electrical insulation properties

- Dimensional stability

- The ability to be produced in complex forms

Applied fiber in composite parts should have high tensile strength and fiber properties (in low diameter) must be much higher than the properties of composite. As a matter of fact considerable forces should be endured by the fiber itself and not only polymer matrix protects fibers from physical and chemical damage, but also it transfers forces to fibers. Moreover, matrix binds fibers together and restricts the crack propagation.

In order to create a strong joint between the fiber and matrix, the modulus of polymer matrix should be lower than fiber.It would be much more effective if sizing was applied throughout the production. The properties of composites are largely dependent on several factors such as the properties of fiber polymer, as well as direction, the length of fiber and the quality of resin joint and fiber. If the length of fiber is shorter than a range (limit) which is called “critical length”, it can’t play its maximum reinforcing.


Composites Manufacturing Methods

A)  Hand Lay Up


In this method, after using the releasing agent and gel coat in order to have an appropriate and smooth surface. Resin is added to it manually and spreaded with a brush and air will be taken out by a roller. It’s also possible to impregnate fiber with resin prior to putting in the m old this method. Based on the designing of the composite parts, layering will be carried on to get the thickness .

In this method the curing and hardening are usually carried out in the room temperature. If you’re willing to accelerate the hardening process, different kinds of catalyzes could be used. In this methods fiberglass is mainly used in the form of mat or woven.


B) Spray Up


In this method spraying resin could be done through chopping fiber on the mold. This procedure can be done by a spray gun and the air will be taken out by a roller. In this method, lay up process is done until it reaches to the pre-planned design. The hardening is carried out either in the room temperature or through heating.


C) Pultrusion


Pultrusion can be considered as a continuous procedures for producing various cross sections of composites. In this method, the roving fiber is going through a bath containing resin. Afterwards it is passed through a hot mold and after passing through this it will be taken out by tension machine. There is a possibility of producing similar composites in the plastics as well.


D) Filament Winding


It can be claimed that this method is the most appropriate one in producing circular parts such as tanks and pipes.

Depending on the kind of technology, glass fiber will be wind around a mold in the form of roving together with mat or woven or chopping fiber. The curing of the component would be taken place simultaneously or at the end of the procedure.

E) Molding


Unlike the previous methods, this method which consists of other different methods such as SMC and BMC, is carried out in closed environment, thus it is of smoother surface.




Initially, the fiber is put in male and female molds, afterwards resins and catalysts are added to it through existing holes.





Fiberglass is widely regarded as reinforcement in composite industry. Resin and fiberglass composite is a kind of polymer composite which is reinforced by fibers. 

In order to compare the mechanical properties of fiberglass, it would be sufficient to consider tensile strength of usual steel with the density of 8 gr/cm3 which is almost 300 MPa or 3000 Kg/cm2. On the contrary, tensile strength of usual fiberglass with the density of 2.5 gr/cm3 which is almost 3000 MPa or 30000 Kg/cm2.

Depending on the main consisting components of fiberglass, the most common types of fiber which are readily available in the market are E-Glass, C-Glass, S-Glass and ECR-Glass with the following features.

- E-Glass: with general and electrical applications

- S-Glass: high mechanical properties

- C-Glass: suitable chemical resistance

- ECR-Glass: great chemical, electrical and mechanical resistance and its more compatible with          the environment due to deficit of bor-fluorine in its structure.

Based on kind of application and production process of composite, various types of fiberglass such: roving, yarn, chopped strand mat, tissue, woven are used.


Application of Composites and Advanced Materials

In recent years, composites and advanced technology and materials have been applied for broad and huge range of purposes .

Some of which can be mentioned as the following:

A) Construction Industry 

- Two single or corrugated panels

 - Different kinds of reinforced panels

 - Reinforced asphalt

- All kinds of booths, doors,…

- All types of wall papers

- Thermal insulators

 B) House Appliances

- All kinds of tables and chairs, furniture and decoration

- Bath tub and Jacuzzi, bath and sink

- Cabinets

- Statues 

C) Water Industry

- The isolation of water tanks and swimming pools

- Water tanks

- Composites pipes and joints

- Cooling towers 

D) Marine Industry

- Different kind of yachts, fishing boats, military ships, ferries, …

E) Sport’s Equipment 

- All types of skates, instruments in amusement parks,

Aqua parks and artificial lakes


 G) Aerospace

- Different parts of airplanes body


 H) Transportation industry

- All kinds of car components, train’s compartments

I) Tel. Communication and Electrical Industry

- Wind turbines, electrical boards and satellite dishes